If the subject reaches legal maturity during his studies, the consent of an adult must be obtained. Paediatric studies are sensitive to sensitive subjects and risks and require regular re-evaluations by the relevant ethics committees, scientific review committees with public approval. In non-therapeutic research, the refusal of the child`s participation requires that it be respected by the investigator.  The process of disclosing the information appears to be quite straighte; However, in the real situation, this can lead to difficulties. The amount or extent to which information should be provided on different aspects of the research, such as the risks and benefits associated with study interventions, is unclear and is rather a subjective approach, according to the investigator. For example, telling or repeating the possible side effects of a trial treatment can make that treatment ill-advised if the treatment is not as risky. On the contrary, if the patient is not informed of a recent adverse reaction, the question of the validity of the consent arises, since the information has not been adequately provided. Therefore, researchers are advised to provide information about the study in an appropriate, reasonable and genuinely ethical balance between the expected risks and benefits of the intervention being studied.  Doctors may also explain the clinical significance or acceptance of possible side effects in terms of the severity of the disease.
For example, fever as a side effect of a headache pill is clinically unacceptable; while neutropenia is an adverse effect of an anticancer drug may be clinically acceptable. In addition, a biased presentation of the information for the deliberate purpose of getting the participant to decide according to the researcher`s wishes would invalidate the consent. Therefore, the disclosure of information should be strictly free from coercion, fraud and biased presentation. Therapeutic privileges are different from situations where the disclosure of information is excused due to the practical impossibility of disclosing information, such as . B emergencies; is also an exception to ethics or the general rule of obtaining informed consent. However, therapeutic privilege should only be exercised by researchers or physicians if serious damage to the patient`s well-being, such as . B triggering suicidal desires or behaviors, are strongly believed and can be demonstrated (e.g. B, by their expertise, experience or other means). This exception to informed consent does not apply to situations where the disclosure of information simply results in the denial of medical care or the failure to accept participation in a research study that the physician or researcher deems beneficial. [26–28] Consent, which in itself is insufficient, requires supplementation with the consent of the legal guardian or parents; although the REBs concerned may, under certain conditions, waive their additions.  If the child refuses consent in special circumstances, this decision cannot be overturned with the consent of the parents/legal guardians. If the expected harm to the proposed research is greater than minimal and no direct benefit to the subject is anticipated, the research will still be authenticated if sufficient targeted scientific information can be gathered.  As much information as possible and how the patient might assimilate should also be disclosed in emergency situations and incompetent patients. .